history of medicine 3


Gross, Ludwik. 1995. “How the Plague Bacillus and Its Transmission through Fleas Were Discovered: Reminiscences from My Years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States92: 7609-7611.

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Morabia, Alfredo. 2007. “Epidemiologic Interactions, Complexity, and the Lonesome Death of Max von Pettenkofer.” American Journal of Epidemiology166.11: 1233-1238.

Andrews, Bridie. 1997. “Tuberculosis and the Assimilation of Germ Theory in China, 1895-1937.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences52.1: 114-157.

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  • 1. What was the relationship between Gross and the historical actors relating to the discovery in this article? How much “reminiscence” is there presenting in the article? How convincing is it?
  • 2. What are Koch’s Postulates? According to Gross, did Yersin follow Koch’s Postulates to discover the pathogen of the bubonic plague? If yes, how? What were the associated non-medical difficulties that Yersin have to encounter? And how did he resolve them? What had Simond observed in order to determine that the plague is transmitted through flea? What did people observe and understand about the transmission before Simond’s discovery? What was the key, to your understand from the article, leading to Simond’s discovery?
  • 3. According to Morabia, for what reasons did Max von Pettenkofer reject germ theory? In the case of cholera, how did von Pettenkofer explain the cause of the disease? What led to von Pettenkofer’s defeat of his own theory? How did Morabia sympathize with von Pettenkofer? Can you tell the author’s position on pathogenesis? What is it?
  • 4. According to Andrews, how did the pre-modern Chinese understand the cause, transmission, and treatments of tuberculosis? What propelled the assimilation of germ theory in China? How did the Chinese assimilate with germ theory? Give concert examples, ie. who did what? What were the concerns behind the appropriation?

For each question, out of four, there should be two paragraphs as the answer. No works cited page is needed.

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