answer 4 gerontology short answer questions

Hello, below I have attached my dual assignments. All together it is (4) questions and I only need 2 pages. 1/2 page for each questions. Must be in APA format. I have attached material that could be very useful. Be sure to have a reference page and to cite everything properly.

Questions:

Assignment 1—

Assignment One

Please copy the Question before answering it (Question-Response)

Q1- The field of comparative socio-cultural gerontology or “anthropology of aging” has helped researchers differentiate what aspects of aging are universal or biological and which factors are largely shaped by the sociocultural system (Infeld, 2002; Sokolovsky, 2009).

Choose any one country (other than USA) and discuss how their sociocultural system determines the aging process in that country/culture. Make sure you choose one country and not a “culture” (let me know which country you chose). Discuss the negative and the positive factors (clearly written as “negative” and “positive”) that impact the aging process in that country. Please provide, at least, one VALID reference using the ULM library resources (required) in addition to using your textbook. Minimum Words: 200 (10 points). Please the format below to respond to this question.

Country:

Negative factors that impact aging in this country:

Positive factors that impact aging in this country:

Q2- How do the roles of individuals change in the USA as they reach the age of 75? Your response needs to cover multiple roles played by all of us at any age. Break your response into paragraphs focusing on different roles after age 75. (10 points)

EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE ASSIGNMENT:

Did the student address the questions completely and clearly?

Did the question provide appropriate research citations (if asked for in the question)?

Were the references used by the student relevant to the question?

Did writing errors make it difficult for the instructor to understand the responses?

Were the responses focused or vague and scattered?

Assignment 2—

Assignment Two

Copy the question before answering it (Question-Answer).

Please type within the text box (inline text). It will allow you to format your responses like a word processor.

Q1- Based on your reading of the chapter, which particular theory did you think helps to explain the logic of biological aging more so than others? Give very clear reasons for your response (5 points)

Q2- (a) What effect does aging have on the self-image of the elderly? Cite, at least, one scholarly reference (in addition to your textbook) at the end of your response. A scholarly reference can be found using the ULM Library resources. Minimum words: 150 (5 points)

(b) What are 5 things older adults can do to improve their self-image as they age? Write realistic responses after carefully thinking. Repetition of the same response in different words will affect your score. (10 points)

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EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE ASSIGNMENT:

Did the student address the questions completely and clearly?

Did the student demonstrate their critical thinking skills, appropriate for a graduate-level course, in their responses?

Did the question provide appropriate research citations (if asked for in the question)?

Did writing errors make it difficult for the instructor to understand the responses?

MY PERSONAL INSTRUCTIONS:

I expect a page & 1/2 for each assignment. Doesn’t have to be long but thorough and use lots of empirical references. It’s only 2 questions per assignment nothing too long and most of the questions are fun. Remember APA format. I have attached the evaluation material, textbook information, questions for the assignment to be answered, and a few other information that could be important.

The assignments will consist of essay-type and short-answer type questions

TEXTBOOK

Title of the book: Social Gerontology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (Subscription), 10th Edition

Authors: Nancy R. Hooyman, Kevin Y. Kawamoto, and H. Asuman Kiyak

Year of Publication: 2018

Format: Adobe Reader

ISBN: ISBN-9780133913156

Format Access Code Card

ISBN: ISBN-9780133911510

Link to access the Revel edition of the Textbook

You can access your Revel edition of the book by clicking on the following link:

https://console.pearson.com/enrollment/up2trv

Video Links to Help;

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRn5hHJi_Ds

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WnMdrzoHqLc

Module 1: Summary

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Module Summary

Global Aging Trends

Population aging is a global phenomenon that is occurring at different rates in both developed and developing countries, reflecting the demographic transition from high-fertility rural agrarian societies to low-fertility urban industrialized societies. The largest proportions of elders are in industrialized countries, especially in Europe and Japan, where life expectancy and the median age have increased dramatically in the past 30 years. However, the populations in many developing countries are aging rapidly due to improved sanitation, medical care, immunizations, and other factors. A key challenge associated with global aging, intensified by declining birthrates, is that fewer workers are available to support the growing proportion of older people. China is already facing a crisis from its prior one-child-per-family policy resulting in fewer workers, and fewer daughters and daughters-in-law to provide care for its burgeoning population of elders. Many developing countries, focused on the immediate needs of younger populations, have not yet established adequate public policies to address the needs of their growing older populations.

A basic principle governing the status of older adults is the need to achieve a balance between their contributions to society and the costs of supporting them. The process of modernization and technological development often conflicts with traditions of filial piety. But the family still continues to play an essential role in supporting its oldest members in most societies. The extent to which older citizens are engaged in society appears to vary in part with the nature of their power resources, such as their material possessions, knowledge, and social authority. For instance, the status of American Indian/Native Alaskans elders improves when younger generations value their transmission of cultural beliefs and practices. In most of their exchanges, older people seek to maintain reciprocity and to be active, autonomous agents in the management of their own lives. That is, they prefer to give money, time, caregiving, or other resources in exchange for services. This social exchange theory suggests that communities should seek ways to increase older people’s resources and contributions to improve how society values them.

Module 2: Summary

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Module Summary

Biological Theories of Aging

To date, there is no one biological theory of aging. Of the five primary biological theories of aging—cellular, wear and tear, immunological, free radical or oxidative stress, and mitochondrial DNA mutation theory—most research evidence supports the cellular and mutation theories. A more recent focus has been on CR and antiaging compounds, although both have controversial aspects to them. Prolongevity research that aims to increase average life expectancy by reducing the burden of disease and achieve more years of active life expectancy holds more promise than antiaging research.

The Social Consequences of Physical Aging

As shown by this review of physiological systems, the aging process is gradual, heterogeneous and begins in some organ systems as early as the 20s and 30s and progresses more rapidly after age 70, or even 80, in others. Even with 50 percent deterioration in many organ systems, an individual can still function adequately. The ability of human beings to compensate for age-related changes attests to their significant amount of excess reserve capacity. In most instances, the normal physical changes of aging need not diminish a person’s well-being and quality of life if person–environment congruence can be maintained. Since many of the decrements are gradual and slight, older individuals can learn to modify their activities to adapt to their environments—for example, by improving the lighting in their homes and eliminating background noise when interacting with others. Family members and professionals can be supportive by encouraging home modifications, such as keeping living space clutter free to optimize function and physical activity, using nightlights, and providing a hearing-impaired individual with a CaptionCall phone to read what is being said. Or elders adjusting to changes in their motor and kinesthetic system can benefit from efforts to improve balance.

Personality and Mental Health in Old Age

The earliest theories of personality suggested that development takes place only during childhood and adolescence and that personality stabilizes by early adulthood. Beginning with Erik Erikson, however, theorists have suggested that personality continues to change and evolve into old age. According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, the individual experiences crises or conflicts at each stage of development, and the outcome of each has an impact on ego development in the next stage. The seventh stage, generativity versus stagnation, takes place mostly during the middle years, but researchers increasingly find that continued generativity in old age is important for active aging. Numerous volunteer programs encourage older people to experience ongoing generativity, or giving back to society, often through mentoring others. The eighth and last stage of personality development occurs in old age and poses the conflict of ego integrity versus despair in dealing with one’s impending death. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found evidence for these last two stages of development, particularly using Loevinger’s model of ego development, which expands Erikson’s stage theory.

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